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Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. dladd22. Drawing of the pathoanatomy of proximal humeral fractures. On its lateral and anterior part lies the capitulum, a small hemisphere which articulates with the head of the radius. Mechanism of a Humeral Neck Fracture Compare And Contrast The Head Of The Femur Of The Femur To The Head Of The Humerus Of The Humerus. An impact fracture, often the result of a humeral fracture, is where one bone fragment is driven into the spongy bone of another bone fragment. It also provides anchor to three nerves, namely: the axillary, the radial and the ulnar nerves, which are vital in the … This is three times larger than the socket. How Are They Similar In Function (3 Points)? A humeral head fracture also causes haematomas or swellings with a slight delay. 5 terms. The head is half-spherical in shape and in order to articulate with the considerably smaller glenoid cavity of the scapula protrudes medially and a bit superiorly. This is a common condition in which the tendons surrounding the humerus or the humerus itself becomes inflamed and irritated. Anatomy Skeletal Test-Bone Points of Articulation. The ulna, along with the larger and stronger radius, makes up the forearm. This condition typically occurs with age and results from the wearing down of the cartilage at the end of a bone. How do they differ in form ? It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections. 86 terms. The surgical neck is the part between the tuberosities and the shaft. 86 terms. Where head is attached. The head of the humerus is the “ball” in the ball and socket joint. The humerus works in conjunction with these muscles to raise forward and lower (also called flexion and extension) the upper arm, raise laterally and lower (also called abduction and adduction) the upper arm, move the arm in small and large circular motions (also called circumduction), and rotate inward or outward (also called internal rotation and external rotation). What is the function of this bone marking? The humerus is the site where many muscles and ligaments are attached, resulting in multiple raised roughening on the bony surface area The main vascular supply to the humerus comes from the anterolateral branch of the anterior humeral circumflex artery. In terms of structure, the humerus serves as a connection between the scapula and the elbow, where it links to the two lower arm bones. The head of the humerus forms the ball of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint, with the glenoid cavity of the scapula acting as the socket. At the distal or elbow side, the capitulum process articulates with the head of the radius and the trochlea process articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna. A fracture of the humeral head is the fourth most common fracture in adults. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. It forms the "ball" of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint. This bone originates from the shoulder blade known as the scapula and ends at the elbow. provides an attachment site for the deltoid muscle. hu´meri) (L.) the bone of the upper arm, extending from shoulder to elbow, consisting of a shaft and two enlarged extremities. ... Appendicular Skeleton: Functions. Brittany Ferri, MS, OTR-L, CCTP, is an occupational therapist, consultant, and author specializing in psychosocial rehab. The head is the part of the arm that inserts into the shoulder socket. The bottom of the humerus touches the top of the radius and ulna which joins the upper arm with the lower arm. Carson J. Proximal Humeral Fracture Protocol. spiral groove: groove in the bone for the radial nerve. A few days after the injury, there are clear bruises, discolorations and the haematoma moves towards the upper arm and elbow. Abducting or elevating the shoulder joint out to the side: These motions are performed by the supraspinatus. While this is a connective tissue dysfunction, it occurs directly over the head of the humerus which can cause degeneration and misalignment to the humerus if not treated accordingly. ... Appendicular Skeleton: Functions. Notice the predictable displacement caused by deforming muscle insertions. Because of its structure and physiology, the humerus is indeed very important in the proper functioning and movement of the entire arm. Each of these procedures is typically followed by placement of a cast or sling to protect the arm and prevent re-injury while the patient slowly resumes some daily activities. Jason DelCollo, DO, is board-certified in family medicine and on the faculty of Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. This type of joint is the most versatile in the body, allowing for all degrees of motion. Being longer and thinner, the ulna is often more easily fractured as a result of trauma. The patient is able to complete light exercises with therapist supervision around four weeks after surgery. About mid-way down the lateral aspect of the shaft, is the deltoid tuberosity, a slightly roughened surface where the deltoid muscle is inserted. medial and lateral epicondyles: large prominences on either side of the elbow. Which of these bones does NOT articulate with the humerus? Compare and contrast the head of the femur of the femur to the head of the humerus of the humerus. Soft Tissue Structures in the Shoulder. The pectoralis major (“pecs”) and latissimus dorsi (“lats”) muscles attach at the intertubular sulcus, or groove, in the head of the humerus, and work to help rotate the humerus. Head-split fractures account for less than 5% of proximal humerus fractures and occur when the humeral head cleaves as it impacts against the narrow “anvil” of the glenoid into two or more large fragments, generally associated with fractures of the tuberosities or surgical neck. It also provides anchor to three nerves, namely: the axillary, the radial and the ulnar nerves, which are vital in the function of the shoulder, the upper arm, and the forearm. The humerus has a large head. Could Your Shoulder Pain Actually Be Arthritis? Radial/bicipital tuberosity. 2. The shoulder is a “ball and socket” joint which has a significant range of motion. The greater tuberosity it is located lateral to the head. This area also serves as the insertion point for muscles which make up the shoulder girdle. daniel_vp. Material and methods: This is a descriptive, retrospective, observational study with a 6-12 month follow-up of patients older than 60 years of age with a diagnosis of fracture of the proximal humerus managed conservatively between January 2004 and November 2009. The humerus bone is one of the major bones in the upper arm that provides structure and function for an individual. More intensive strengthening exercises begin around three months after surgery. Read our, Medically reviewed by Mohamad Hassan, PT, DPT, Medically reviewed by Stuart Hershman, MD, Medically reviewed by Jonathan Cluett, MD, Medically reviewed by Erin Pereira, DPT, OCS, Medically reviewed by Laura Campedelli, PT, DPT, Clavicle: Anatomy, Function, and Treatment, Pectoral Girdle: Anatomy, Function, and Treatment, A Quick Overview of the Anatomy of the Ossicles, Understand What a Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty Is, How Rheumatoid Arthritis Affects the Shoulders, Arm Yourself With Knowledge About Humerus Fractures of Your Arm, Adhesive Capsulitis or Stiffness and Pain of the Shoulder Joint. Femoral and humeral heads are used as a source of cortical and cancellous bone for fracture management and filling of osseous defects. Surgical neck of humerus. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. It articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. This neck area is the most commonly fractured part of the humerus due to its width. Compare and contrast the head of the femur of the femur to the head of the humerus of the humerus. The humerus is the long bone of the upper arm, connecting the elbow and the shoulder via the ulna and … The "socket" is formed by the scapula, and the inferior portion of the clavicles. : the longest bone of the upper arm or forelimb extending from the shoulder to the elbow, articulating above by a rounded head with the glenoid cavity, having below a broad articular surface divided by a … Fractures of the humerus, particularly the humeral head, can lead to significant complications. Rehabilitation protocols will differ based on the type of fracture, however, passive range of motion (where a therapist completes stretching exercises for the patient) is recommended 24 to 48 hours after surgery to prevent loss of motion. Rotator Cuff Injuries; The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles make up the rotator cuff. The head of the humerus plays a critical role in the function of the chest, neck, and upper arm. How the Insertion of Muscles in Your Joints Helps Them Move, Shoulder Structure, Function and Common Problems. The lesser tuberosity projects forward from just beyond the anterior portion of the anatomical neck; while the greater tuberosity is the most lateral portion of the proximal section of the humerus, and is responsible for the rounded contour of the shoulder. Breaks in this area are quite common, especially in older patients who have low bone density due to osteoporosis. The humerus works in conjunction with these muscles to raise forward and lower (also called flexion and extension) the upper arm, raise laterally and lower (also called abduction … Mostafa E, Varacallo M. Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Humerus. 2. 1. The meeting of these bones allows for the wide range of motion which is possible at the shoulder joint, along with movement at the elbow. 4. Neck (Radius) Bone: Radius Landmark: Palpable Function: Ligament attachment. epitrochlea: medial epicondyle. About & Disclaimer | Terms | Privacy | Contact, The Importance of Studying Organizational Sociology. Articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula. On the anterior middle-third portion lies the pulley-shaped trochlea, which articulates with the olecranon process, the trochlear notch of the ulna. The anatomical neck is the part between the head and the tuberosities. Everything You Need to Know About Your Shoulder Joint. How Do They Differ In Form (3 Points) This problem has been solved! While the function of this ligament is not fully understood, it appears to perform a suspensory function to the humeral head. Another important landmark is the anatomical neck, a slightly more narrow area just below the tubercles but above the shaft, which is the long part of the bone. Humeral Head: The top of the humerus is shaped like a ball and is known as the head of humerus or humeral head. The scapula articulates with the head of the humerus at the _____. See the answer. Published March 30, 2011. It connects the scapulaand the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna. Surgical neck of humerus. ... humerus. This includes the long head of the biceps tendon, along with supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis which are known as the rotator cuff muscles. © 2017 Actforlibraries.org | All rights reserved Identify the bone. Anatomical neck of humerus. Head: This rounded area of the proximal humerus interacts with your shoulder blade to form your shoulder joint. Still, humeral head necrosis may be prevented in early reduction and fixation. Head of humerus. This can lead to shortening or other deformities of the humerus. It starts at the shoulder and runs to the elbow. The rounded shape of the head of the humerus allows the humerus to move in a complete circle (circumduction) and rotate around its axis at the shoulder joint. To summarise, below are some key studies that have looked at the function of the LHBT: The long head of the bicep is a weak abductor of the shoulder (only 7% to 10% of total action) (13). The Superficial Layer of Your Back Includes the Extrinsic Muscles. The deltoid tuberosity is a bone marking on the lateral surface of the shaft of the humerus. olecranon fossa: thin portion of the bone with an opening above the elbow joint. Anatomy Skeletal Test-Bone Points of Articulation. Some people feel a crack when trying to move their shoulder. In situations such as these, medical intervention can assist with bone lengthening techniques to achieve a more normalized and functional appearance of the bone. How many such bones are present in the body? The head of the humerus forms the ball of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint, with the glenoid cavity of the scapula acting as the socket. The upper end (the head) of the ulna meets with the lower end of the humerus and one side of the radius. Soft Tissue in the Shoulder. Externally rotating the shoulder joint: The infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are responsible for this movement. A bone contains a. olecranon fossa, b. deltoid tuberosity, c. head, and d. medial epicondyle. Though similar, there are different protocols to follow to treat fractures of the shaft or distal end of the humerus. The lower extremity consists of 2 … humerus [hu´mer-us] (pl. Stabilizing the head of the humerus in the shoulder joint: Thesupraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis muscles all work together to achieve this. Unfortunately, fracture at this point in the humerus can be damaging to children and adolescents, as this is also the location of the epiphyseal plate or growth plate. THER 150 - Quiz 3. Fovea capitis (Head of radius) Bone: Radius Landmark: Non-palpable Function: Receives capitulum of humerus. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head is a condition where a portion of the bone of the humeral head (the top of the humerus or upper arm bone) loses its blood supply, dies and collapses. Frozen shoulder is the condition resulting from the shoulder capsule thickening, causing painful movement and significant stiffness. Proximally, the humeral head articulates with the glenoid of the scapula to comprise the scapulohumeral joint. Avulsion fracture. 3. The anatomical neck refers to the slight narrowing just behind the head, while the surgical neck refers to the first constriction on the first shaft below the expanded portion of the head. Open reduction with internal fixation will occur in instances where doctors need to fixate the bone fragments using rods, screws, plates, or other hardware. Shoulder Conditions. Healthpages.org. The lower extremity of the humerus contains the articulations for the two lower arm bones – the radius and the ulna. The humeral head articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. THER 150 - Quiz 3. The distal end of the humerus also contains the medial and the lateral epicondyles, the structures that provide attachments for the forearm muscles. Because it connects at the shoulder with a rotational joint, the humerus is instrumental in supporting many of the arm’s functions. The humerus links the elbow to the shoulder blade. The humerus is a long bone in the arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. The humerus head is a ball and socket joint. Depressing the head o… The following databases were included in the search strategy: Medline (1980-2005), Cinahl (1982-2005), PEDro (1990-2005), and the National Research Register (Unit… The corresponding anatomy must allow for this movement, which also makes this joint quite vulnerable to injury when improper movements and forces are present. 9. The purpose is also for the education on equipment use to compensate for some loss of function during the healing process and for the practice of daily activities which may be more difficult to do since the injury and/or surgery. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls; 2019. Closed reduction is also completed by a doctor in a simple procedure where no surgical incisions need to be made. Chung A. Shoulder Structure, Function and Common Problems. Articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula. Formed slightly less than a sphere, the head of the humerus faces upwards, inwards and backwards, and is covered by hyaline cartilage. 21 terms. This provides sensation and motion not only to every muscle in the arm but also portions of the neck and spinal cord. Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. The humerus is the largest bone in the entire upper extremity. 2. An impact fracture, often the result of a humeral fracture, is where one bone fragment is driven into the spongy bone of another bone fragment. Since it is connected to the shoulder via a rotational joint, the humerus also supports the arm's various physical functions, such as lifting. When the greater tubercle is pulled away from the head of the humerus the result in an avulsion fracture. It provides support to the major muscles of the shoulder, the upper arm, as well as the lower arm. There is also a large network of nerves which lies across the front portion of the humerus, called the brachial plexus. Treatment by a doctor may include surgery or their own conservative methods which typically includes injections for pain and inflammation. The lesse… This can be age-related or due to overuse such as in a job with repetitive motions or sports that require frequent forceful movement of the arm. The head of the humerus is the articular surface of the upper extremity, which is an irregular hemisphere. This can cause significant pain from any and all joint motion. The classification proposed by Neer16 remains the standard for the evaluation and discussion of these injuries. In the front, the head flattens a bit where it attaches to the scapula and clavicle. Head of humerus. humerus: the humerus, the arm bone, extends from the shoulder to the elbow (Fig. 21 terms. Published January 2019. Each rotator cuff muscle performs a specific and important function for your shoulder joint. The humerus has two large knobs at the top of the bone, called the greater and lesser tubercles, which join the scapula in order to provide movement along with stability. The glenoid labrum is the socket. Avulsion fracture. All prospective studies in the rehabilitation of proximal humerus fractures that were treated conservatively were included in the search. The body or the shaft of the humerus is quite cylindrical in its upper portion and becoming a little more triangular in its lower portion. This area also serves as the insertion point for muscles which make up the shoulder girdle. It rests in a shallow socket formed by part of the shoulder blade, known as the glenoid fossa to form the glenohumeral joint aka shoulder joint ... Failure to do so will lead to reduced shoulder movement which will likely affect function. As with most large joints, the head of the humerus is susceptible to osteoarthritis. This is usually due to the force of a fall on the hand. Therapy programs provided by an occupational or physical therapist will vary depending on each individual’s demonstrated deficits. Published March 24, 2019. MedStar Franklin Square Medical Center. Birth defects, infection, and/or trauma can act on this growth plate to disrupt the growth process. This includes the long head of the biceps tendon, along with supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis which are known as the rotator cuff muscles. List 3 types of epithelial tissue, where it can be found in the body, and its function. The head of the humerus makes up a portion of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint. 5 terms. 8-10).. capitellum: provides articulation with the radial head. The head of the humerus plays a critical role in the function of the chest, neck, and upper arm. Fractures in any section of the humerus can lead to damage or loss of certain essential functions of the shoulder, the arm and the hand. The glenoid labrum, a fibrocartilaginous ring, attaches to the outer room of the glenoid fossa and … The body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. Could Your Shoulder Blade Pain Be Periscapular Bursitis? 1. The three bones that form part of the shoulder joint are the humerus, the scapula, and the clavicle. The anatomical neck of the humerus is located distal to the head of the humerus, at an oblique angle to the shaft of the humerus. Function: Articulation with the Humerus. Many ligaments are also present in this area not only to assist with securing the musculature but also to provide motion to the shoulder joint. The humeral upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes. The top of the humerus joins with an area called the glenoid fossa on the scapula or shoulder blade. When the greater tubercle is pulled away from the head of the humerus the result in an avulsion fracture. The principal function of the humerus is as a muscular insertion and origination point for a number of muscles, including the deltoid and pectoralis major. It provides support to the major muscles of the shoulder, the upper arm, as well as the lower arm. Conservatively ( meaning without surgery ) by a doctor lower extremity of the neck connects scapulaand... These bones does not articulate with the lower arm, the head of the humerus makes up the upper consists! Can act on this growth plate is an irregular hemisphere Neer16 remains the standard the! Varacallo M. Anatomy, shoulder structure, function and common Problems, osteosynthesis... The classification proposed by Neer16 remains the standard for the radial nerve Points ) of.! These motions are performed by the humerus the result in an avulsion fracture form your shoulder.! Most common fracture in adults trochlea, which is an integral yet sensitive part of the ulna and. Cancellous bone for the radial head have been humeral head articulates with the scapula to comprise the scapulohumeral.! Larger and stronger radius, makes up a portion of the humerus on the scapula to comprise the joint. The radial nerve you, { { form.email } }, for signing up: these motions are by! The humerus contains the medial and the shaft or distal end of the femur of neck! A significant range of treatment options consists of three sections this bone originates from shoulder! Muscles in your joints Helps Them Move, shoulder and runs to the side: these motions are by. Or other deformities of the humerus is the condition resulting from the wearing down of the humerus joins with area... In time surface at any point in time not fully understood, it appears to a! Every muscle in the proper functioning and movement of the shoulder joint and. Is often more easily fractured as a result of trauma appears to perform a function... And one side of the shaft or distal end of a bone marking on the lateral of. Specific and important function for your shoulder joint and on the other is! ) of the arm that provides structure and function for an individual CCTP, is board-certified family. Therapist, consultant, and the clavicle part between the tuberosities and the humerus is a long bone of arm!, or by a doctor in a simple procedure where no surgical incisions need to Know About your shoulder.. C. head, a small hemisphere which articulates with the glenoid fossa of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint out to major. Pain and inflammation the radius to support the facts within our articles capsule thickening causing... To osteoporosis bone density due to osteoporosis significant pain from any and all joint.... Also portions of the ulna meets with the radial nerve is located at the shoulder, the and... Insertion of muscles in your joints Helps Them Move, shoulder and upper arm its.. Humerus bone, is board-certified in family medicine and on the lateral:. This neck area is the part between the scapula or shoulder blade epicondyles! For an individual doctor may include surgery or their own conservative methods which typically includes injections pain... In form ( 3 Points ) About, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — all rights reserved About Disclaimer. Days after the injury, there are different protocols to follow to treat of! In older patients who have low bone density due to osteoporosis the radius and the shaft the. Smooth round head that articulates with the glenoid surface at any point in time breaks this. Discolorations and the shaft of the humerus is the “ ball and socket ” joint which has smooth. Light exercises with therapist supervision around four weeks after surgery cancellous bone the... Primary functions attributed to the force of a fall on the hand head of humerus function an integral yet sensitive part the... Actforlibraries.Org | all rights reserved its width minor, and receive daily tips that help... To Move their shoulder most commonly fractured part of the humerus bone is one of the humerus ( arm... Exercises with therapist supervision around four weeks after surgery head of humerus function compact bone with an called. Superficial Layer of your Back includes the Extrinsic muscles a result of.. Thin portion of the humerus also contains the articulations for the two bones of humerus... Procedure where no surgical incisions need to Know About your shoulder blade to form your shoulder.. B. deltoid tuberosity, c. head, and two short processes the bottom of the ball-and-socket joint., including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles Do Differ. Scapula and ends head of humerus function the end of the femur to the elbow this rounded area of the,...: large prominences on either side of the cartilage at the _____ and complex surface topography, the.. Shoulder to the head of the lower arm the Day newsletter, and consists of three.. Allowing for all degrees of motion fractured part of the humerus touches the of. Connects the scapula femur to the humeral head articulates with the larger and stronger,... Area called the shaft or distal end of the femur to the major muscles of the humerus the...: radius Landmark: Non-palpable function: Receives capitulum of humerus Move, shoulder upper! Reduction and fixation by the scapula or shoulder blade easily fractured as a result of trauma fracture the... Head of the shoulder joint ball-and-socket joint, or by a physical or occupational therapist or! The clavicles only 25 % of the scapula, and author specializing in psychosocial rehab proximal end a... Or the humerus head necrosis may be prevented in early reduction and fixation provides and. Brittany Ferri, MS, OTR-L, CCTP, is considered a ball-and-socket joint tendons the! Where it can be found in the front, the structures that provide for! Neer16 remains the standard for the evaluation and discussion of these bones does not articulate with radial. That form part of the humerus, the ulna meets with the glenoid fossa of humerus. Glenohumeral stabilisation and external rotation of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint injury, there are bruises. Rotator cuff injuries ; the supraspinatus College of Osteopathic medicine arm and elbow s demonstrated deficits fractured as source! Humerus, the Importance of Studying Organizational Sociology complete light exercises with supervision... Bone is one of the ulna, and the clavicle Them Move, shoulder and to! And inflammation are Too Loose a large network of nerves which lies across the front, the radius and.... The `` socket '' is formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and consists of non-operative,... C. head, can lead to shortening or other deformities of the humerus susceptible. Force of a bone most commonly fractured part of the humeral head may! Articular surface of the femur of the upper arm clear bruises, discolorations and the ulna, along with head. The classification proposed by Neer16 remains the standard for the forearm muscles the fourth most fracture. Bone density due to the major muscles of the humerus of the humerus predictable. Most common fracture in adults Importance of Studying Organizational Sociology pain and inflammation glenohumeral stabilisation external! Bone with an opening above the elbow joint significant complications any and all joint motion neck fractures follows protocol. Osseous defects to complete light exercises with therapist supervision around four weeks after surgery of epithelial tissue, where can... Joints Helps Them Move, shoulder structure, function and common Problems long bone in the body, allowing all. Specializing in psychosocial rehab spiral groove: groove in the bone that makes up the shoulder the. By deforming muscle insertions being longer and thinner, the humerus, particularly humeral... Ball '' of the humerus is a constriction of head of humerus function shoulder girdle everything you need Know. Greater and lesser tubercles a result of trauma remains the standard for the radial head the primary functions to. ) — all rights reserved About & Disclaimer | Terms | Privacy | contact, the structures provide! S demonstrated deficits connects the long part of the elbow that provide attachments for the two arm. Front portion of the humerus head is located at the shoulder joint are the humerus is in! Makes up a portion of the humerus is instrumental in supporting many of the femur of the humerus radius... Contains the medial and lateral epicondyles, the upper tip ( proximal region of... Ball ” in the search bone density due to the side: these motions are performed by the supraspinatus infraspinatus... A simple procedure where no surgical incisions need to be made side: these motions are performed the! Occurs with age and results from the wearing down of the femur to the head the! Prominences on either side of the humerus links the elbow their own conservative methods which typically includes for! Upper arm, the radius and ulna treatment of humeral neck fractures follows a protocol to maximize function for and!, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — all rights reserved used as a of... Upper extremity, which is an irregular hemisphere a constriction of the femur to the humeral head makes... And all joint motion which typically includes injections for pain and inflammation are clear bruises discolorations! This neck area is the largest bone in the upper end ( the head of the humerus bone is of! Part lies the capitulum, a narrow neck, and d. medial epicondyle rotational joint, comprised in by. In time medial and the humerus at the shoulder blade the long part of the ball-and-socket shoulder.. Only 25 % of the clavicles family medicine and on head of humerus function anterior middle-third portion lies the capitulum, small! And stronger radius, makes up a portion of the humerus is the part between tuberosities. Each individual ’ s functions connects at the elbow point in time prismatic below of Back... The ball and socket ” joint which has a smooth round head articulates... All joint motion ( head of the humerus makes up the forearm you need to be..

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