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The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. The religion of the Middle Colonies, as one would expect, was diverse. By 1685 its population was almost 9,000. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. While both the New England colonies and the southern colonies were settled by an overwhelmingly British population, usually with roots in some branch of the Church of England, the middle colonies welcomed a far more diverse population, both from within Britain and from across Europe. Delaware changed hands between the Dutch and Swedes between 1631 and 1655. Following the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware. New Netherland was originally settled by Henry Hudson in 1609, chartered in 1614, and made a province of the Dutch Republic in 1624. The Middle colonies benefited from having a very diverse geography, which lent itself to more economic opportunity than the other colonies. The Middle Colonies were more cosmopolitan and tolerant than the New England colonies. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. The most populous of the Middle colonies was Pennsylvania, other colonies were settled rather haphazardly over the course of … A lot of the success of Pennsylvania and Delaware is owed to William Penn. The English takeover of New Netherland originated in the imperial rivalry between the Dutch and the English. Society/Culture Delaware was at first an all white colony, however in years that came, delaware took on slaves, but in a small number. After one of the proprietors sold part of the area to the Quakers, New Jersey was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey—two distinct provinces of the proprietary colony. New Netherland became a province of the Dutch Republic in 1624. If you would like to comment, contact us or like us on Facebook and tell us what you think. During the Anglo-Dutch wars of the 1650s and 1660s, the two powers attempted to gain commercial advantages in the Atlantic World. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. The original report on the 1790 census listed the country’s population as 3,929,326, but math errors showed 114 more people in Vermont than the correct count and two fewer people in Delaware than the correct count. 1168 : hs/us vol.2 : colony: 1780: 1770: 1760: 1750 Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had richer, less rocky soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. As of early 2017, the US population is just shy of 325 million people, a 130X increase over 241 years. The Middle Colonies included New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. For the capital they chose the island of Manhattan, located at the mouth of the river explored by Hudson, which at that time was called the North River. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies. The Scots-Irish also began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. Unlike Plymouth, Jamestown, and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. Abundant forests attracted the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. American Indian tribes had long occupied the area that was conquered as the British Middle Colonies. The British Are Coming. It encompassed parts of the later states of New Jersey, Delaware, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. The Quakers had previously treated American Indians with respect, bought land from them voluntarily, and even had representation of American Indians on juries. New Netherland was the territory on the eastern coast of North America established by Henry Hudson in 1609. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. By 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people after an influx of German, Swiss, and Irish immigrants. The Munsee inhabited the Hudson Valley highlands and northern New Jersey, while Minquas (called the Susquehannocks by the English) lived west of the Zuyd River along and beyond the Susquehanna River, which the Dutch regarded as their boundary with Virginia. American Indian tribes that had long occupied the area later to be conquered as the Middle Colonies included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, Munsee, and Minquas. Broad navigable rivers like the Susquehanna, the Delaware, and the Hudson attracted diverse business, and New York and Philadelphia became important ports. The population of Delaware was not extremely different, the colonies consisted of English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers.The majority of the colony spoke English. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres, owned by the family that worked them. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania. … Rather, Fox and his followers stressed that everyone had an “inner light” inside him or her—a spark of divinity. Compare the culture of the Middle Colonies with that of other English colonies. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, which made for a diverse (albeit largely Christian) populace. Peter led the colony beginning in 1647. The colonial administrators claimed that they had a deed dating to the 1680s, in which the Lenape-Delaware had promised to sell a portion of land beginning between the junction of the Delaware River and Lehigh River, near present Wrightstown, Pennsylvania. This diversity started at the early years of the colonies. From 1692 to 1694, the revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. Middle Colonies and the Western Frontier Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. True or false. When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York and dubbed it “The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River.” In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow it a separate colonial assembly. American colonies, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in the area that is now a part of the eastern United States. The land comprising Delaware was first controlled by the Swedish, then the Dutch, and finally the British in Pennsylvania. James II later granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War. The colonies all had similar constitutions, legal systems, and political systems in place. In 1737, the Colony spent a great deal of its political goodwill with the native Lenape in pursuit of more land. Early European colonists in the Middle Colonies included Germans, Scotch-Irish, French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders. The Birth of Pennsylvania, 1680: William Penn, holding paper, standing and facing King Charles II, in the King’s breakfast chamber at Whitehall. King James II granted the land between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to two friends and named it New Jersey after the island of Jersey. William Penn had asked for and later received the lands of Delaware from the Duke of York. This document provided for religious freedom, no taxes without assembly approval, and a governor appointed by the proprietors. In New York’s Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch established the patroon system, which resembled a feudal aristocracy governing vast land grants. They were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania Dutch and comprised one-third of the population by the time of the American Revolution. Towns in these colonies often had more than one kind of church. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. The Middle colonies consisted of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware. The 1776 population figure is a separate Census Bureau estimate. Soon after the English had gained control of New Netherland, James granted the land between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War and named it New Jersey after the English Channel Island of Jersey. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted American Indians. Admitted to the Dutch Reformed Church and married by its ministers, their children could be baptized. Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow: History Matters! Identify the cultural groups that made up the Middle Colonies. After decades of war in the 1600s, the powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois, composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca, successfully pursued a policy of neutrality with both the English and, to the north, the French in Canada during the first half of the 1700s. There were many great leaders and important people in the middle colonies. Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies’ prosperity. Middle Colonies: The Middle Colonies was comprised of Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Manhattan flourished under the Dutch. Joan Vinckeboons (Johannes Vingboon), “Manatvs gelegen op de Noot Riuier”, 1639: In this map (c. 1639), Manhattan is situated on the North River. The mid-A… The two proprietors of New Jersey attempted to augment their colony’s population by granting sections of lands to settlers and by passing a document granting religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey. In 1701, it gained a separate assembly from the three upper counties but continued to have the same governor as the rest of Pennsylvania. Munsee inhabited the Highlands, Hudson Valley, and northern New Jersey, while Minquas, also known as the Susquehannocks, lived west of the Zuyd River along and beyond the Susquehanna River. Delaware, however, would eventually prove too independent, leading to the ultimate separation from Pennsylvania and unique pioneer status as America’s first state, tied to neither province’s destiny. When the colony fell, the company freed all its slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free blacks. Penn had a hard time governing Delaware because the economy and geology were largely the same as that of the Chesapeake, rather than that of his Pennsylvania territory. From 1682 until 1776, it was part of the Penn proprietorship and was known as the Lower Counties. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania; however, this was still a relatively low number compared to other American colonies. For two centuries, New Netherland Dutch culture characterized the region, and their concepts of civil liberties and pluralism introduced in the province became mainstays of American political and social life. New Jersey and Delaware had a majority British population as well, with 7–11% German-descended colonists, about a 6% African population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants. In 1665, the Concession and Agreement was written to entice settlers to New Jersey. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though few such servants worked in agriculture. The Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than elsewhere in British North America and were somewhat more socially tolerant. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Licenses and Attributions CC licensed content, Shared previously This policy meant that the Iroquois continued to live in their own villages under their own government while enjoying the benefits of trade with both the French and the English. The 1610-1780 numbers, except for 1776, are estimates from the “Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970,” issued by the Census Bureau, which cites as its main sources archival research and the statistical work of various scholars. They were unusual, however, for their degree … In 1664 Colonel Richard Nicolls lead a fleet of English ships into the port of New Jersey, where Fort Amsterdam was, the English fleet took control of the fort and its surrounding area, giving the control of these lands to the country of England. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Middle Colonies later became the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. In 1681, William Penn founded the Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, in British America by royal charter. The Livingstons and the other manorial families who controlled the Hudson River Valley formed a formidable political and economic force. C: The population in the middle colonies was less tolerant. They later on renamed the colony the Dutch had settled in New York. William named the capital of his colony as Philadelphia. Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax, making it the leading food producer in North America from 1725 to 1840. (1point) Leaders of the Middle Colonies advertised in Europe to attract more settlers. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. –“Breadbasket” of the Colonies, trade in foodstuffs, including the Triangle Trade •Demographics –1700: Twice as many people lived in New England than the Middle Colonies –1770: Population of the regions roughly equal –Immigrants—By 1800, 30% of Pennsylvanians and only 50% of the Middle Colonies were of English descent Other groups included the Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, Scots Highlanders, and Huguenots. Ex. Although enslaved, the Africans had a few basic rights and families were usually kept intact. He attempted to merge the governments of Pennsylvania and Delaware. The Dutch soon claimed the land, and although the Swedes and the Dutch fought over the land in the 1630s, the Dutch ultimately claimed the land as New Netherland. The Dutch in New York chafed under English rule. A deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from 1664 to 1682. estimated population of american colonies: 1610 to 1780 : pp. When a powerful English military unit appeared in New Amsterdam, Governor Stuyvesant was forced to surrender and New Netherland became New York. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. Between 1669 and 1672, Delaware was an incorporated county under the Province of Maryland. The Treaty of Penn with the Indians: Benjamin West’s painting (in 1771) of William Penn’s 1682 treaty with the Lenni Lenape. William Penn founded the Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, in British America in 1681 by royal charter. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery to New Netherland in 1625. They gained the name Quakers because they were said to quake when the inner light moved them. These immigrants traveled to all of the colonies, but the Middle Colonies attracted the most and continued to be more ethnically diverse than the other colonies. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. The settled areas claimed by the Dutch as New Netherland included what are now the states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, along with small outposts in present-day Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/indentured_servant, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_colonies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20England%20Confederation, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Middle_Colonies_USA.svg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_history_of_the_United_States%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/US_History/English_Colonies%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second%20Anglo-Dutch%20War, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty%20of%20Westminster, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manatvs_gelegen_op_de_Noot_Riuier.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaware_Colony, http://cnx.org/contents/p7ovuIkl@3.30:ZC7sZcO-@3/Charles-II-and-the-Restoration, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Pennsylvania, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William%20Penn, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower%20Counties, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Birth_of_Pennsylvania_1680_cph.3g07157.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Colonies%23Demographics, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Dutch, http://books.google.com/books?id=GFNJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA170&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U24DCz_974ZR0MnJwEWZaA2zaSTKg&ci=120,404,747,248&edge=0. Henry Hudson explored the Middle Colonies on a journey into the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1609. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scottish Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. Some townships emerged as important ports for shipping to New York and Philadelphia. The Irish came to the early colonies because of potato famine. Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. Much of the territory was quickly divided after 1675, leading to the distribution of land into large tracts that later led to real estate speculation and subdivision. Another important person is captain Henry Hudson who discovered the Hudson river. Quakers rejected the idea of worldly rank, believing instead in a new and radical form of social equality. Chartered in 1614, New Amsterdam was a colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Penn received the charter for Pennsylvania from Charles II and brought over Quaker dissidents from England, Wales, the Netherlands, and France. The colonial government, established in 1682 by Penn’s Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed governor, the proprietor, a Provincial Council, and a larger General Assembly. The Lenape and Susquehanna occupied the land prior to colonization. People moved to the Middle Colonies from New England to escape religious persecution. B: Most people in the middle colonies came from England. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. In 1776, Great Britain's population was roughly three times the size of the Colonies. He decided to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by him. Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania, which called for religious tolerance towards many, including local American Indians and the Religious Society of Friends. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. The Middle Colonies became known as … The 13 Colonies by population in 1770 As the Revolution approached, this is how the Colonies ranked in size. The Middle Colonies consisted of the middle region of the Thirteen Colonies of the British Empire in North America. A small proportion of the English population migrated to British North America after 1700, but the colonies attracted new immigrants from other European countries. Because of various colonial masters in the area, religious traditions from many European countries existed in the area. The middle colonies were originally settled by the Dutch, however the English saw the Dutch as a threat so they drove the Dutch out. Most of the early settlers depended on the fur trade and on farming for economic survival. In 1664, he granted the land to his brother, the Duke of York, before officially owning it. . It wasn’t until 1683, almost 20 years after the English took control of the colony, that colonists were able to convene a local representative legislature. In New York ‘s Hudson Valley, the Dutch established a poltroon system which resembled a feudal aristocracy with vast land grants. In the 1660s, the English largely conquered this land, renaming the area New York after the Duke of York, James II. Over the next few decades, wars with the American Indians erupted, as well as conflicts with the English. The middle colonies had a more diverse population -apex!! Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury was the first man to govern the colony under its new status of a royal colony. D: The population in the middle colonies was more diverse. The English continued the Dutch patroonship system, granting large estates to a favored few families. Under his guidance, Philadelphia became a fabulous city, with broad, tree-shaded streets, stone and brick houses, and a bustling port. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery to New Netherland in 1625. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies and what would become the United States. William Penn founded the Pennsylvania Colony in 1681 and brought over Quaker dissidents from England, Wales, the Netherlands, and France. The Mason-Dixon line is said to have legally resolved vague outlines between Maryland and Pennsylvania and awarded Delaware to Pennsylvania. The document was most likely a forgery; nonetheless, the Provincial Secretary set in motion a plan to grab as much land as possible. Delawareans would meet in New Castle and Pennsylvanians would gather in Philadelphia. As a consequence, early settlements of Germans from many different sects concentrated in the Middle Colonies. Except for the Dutch in New York, the English population had managed to maintain or impose their institutions on all other competing cultures. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. In 1776, during the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became independent of Britain as the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware. The Middle Colonies and New England were different in that New England was largely Puritan, and, save for Rhode Island (which practiced a form of … By 1685 … Much of the area captured by the British from the Dutch in 1664 became the Province of New York. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. The Lenape tribe fought for the next 19 years to have the treaty annulled but was forced into the Shamokin and Wyoming Valleys, which were already overcrowded with other displaced tribes. Families generally held and worked plots of between 40 and 160 acres. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. The Duke of York never visited his colony, named New York in his honor, and exercised little direct control over it. The Penn family was Quaker, and the Pennsylvania colony became a favorite destination for that group as well as German Lutherans, German Reformed, and numerous small sects such as Mennonites, Amish, and Moravians, as well as Scotch Irish Presbyterians. In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal, rather than a proprietary, governor. The Algonquian Lenape people along the Lower Hudson were seasonally migrational. The Birth of Pennsylvania 1680 cph.3g07157. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730, colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. Eighteenth-century New York City, meanwhile, contained a variety of people and religions—as well as Dutch and English people, and it held French Protestants (Huguenots), Jews, Puritans, Quakers, Anglicans, and a large population of slaves. Unlike in the New England Colonies, many different religious groups lived in the Middle colonies. Delaware Colony became a region of the Province of Pennsylvania, although never legally a separate colony. Grant to others land which became the states of New Jersey, and exercised little direct control the! Dutch poltroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers, compared to New England::... 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