June 5, 2018 It had around 4,500 containers to be used to raise fleas, six cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. "Our unit did things no human being should ever do," confesses Unit 731 member Yoshio Shinozuka. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Imperial Japan. In 1958, Japanese author Shūsaku Endō published the book The Sea and Poison about human experimentation, which is thought to have been based on a real incident. Official silence under United States occupation, Post-occupation Japanese media coverage and debate, Significance in postwar research of bio-warfare and medicine. (1) While most documents captured by the US in Europe were microfilmed before being returned to their respective governments, the Department of Defense decided to not microfilm its vast collection of documents before returning them back to the Japanese government. The Supreme Court of Japan ruled in 1997 that the testimony was indeed sufficient and that requiring it to be removed was an illegal violation of freedom of speech.  In a further parallel, the corpses of "sacrificed" subjects were disposed of by incineration. " The children of these women were tested in ways similar to their parents, with specific emphasis on determining how longer infection periods affected the effectiveness of treatments. All of these units comprised Ishii's network, and at its height in 1939, was composed of more than 10,000 personnel. Although publicly silent on the issue at the Tokyo Trials, the Soviet Union pursued the case and prosecuted twelve top military leaders and scientists from Unit 731 and its affiliated biological-war prisons Unit 1644 in Nanjing, and Unit 100 in Changchun, in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. In 1995, there were two major narratives published on Unit 731 and the U.S. immunity deal.  American occupation authorities monitored the activities of former unit members, including reading and censoring their mail. All Japanese court levels found that the suit was baseless. , A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments.  The sentences doled out to the Japanese perpetrators were unusually lenient by Soviet standards, and all but one of the defendants returned to Japan by the 1950s (with the remaining prisoner committing suicide inside his cell). The subject was not pursued further by Sutton, who was probably unaware of Unit 731's activities. At the time of his arrival in Japan he had no knowledge of what Unit 731 was. The hypothetical possibility of vertical transmission (from mother to child) of diseases, particularly syphilis, was the stated reason for the torture. Originally set up under the Kenpeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shirō Ishii, a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army. His reference to it at the trial is believed to have been accidental. , As above, under the American occupation the members of Unit 731 and other experimental units were allowed to go free. Flamethrowers were tested on humans. There have been several films about the atrocities of Unit 731. Six of the most disturbing "experiments" conducted by Unit 731, the gruesome biological and chemical warfare research unit of the Imperial Japanese Army. A Youth Corps member deployed to train at Unit 731 recalled viewing a batch of subjects that would undergo syphilis testing: "one was a Chinese woman holding an infant, one was a White Russian woman with a daughter of four or five years of age, and the last was a White Russian woman with a boy of about six or seven.  He was interviewed by the Imperial War Museum in 1981, and the audio recording tape reels are in the IWM's archives. Takashi Tsuchiya. The resulting cholera, anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed at least 400,000 Chinese civilians. Four or five unit members, dressed in white laboratory clothing completely covering the body with only eyes and mouth visible, rest covered, handled the tests. Aug 29, 2014 - Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube.  Victim accounts were then largely ignored or dismissed in the West as communist propaganda.. In a 1998 correspondence letter between the DOJ and Rabbi Abraham Cooper, Eli Rosenbaum, director of OSI, stated that this was due to two factors. The Awful Truth Of MEN BEHIND THE SUN. He gave up the idea, left and locked the door, then later went on to his experimental work. Unit 731 was active from around 1936 in the former Manchukuo, a puppet state that the Japanese controlled from 1932 to 1945 in the northeastern Chinese region traditionally called Manchuria.  Other researchers that the Soviet forces managed to arrest first were tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949. The complex contained various factories. MacArthur struck a deal with Japanese informants: He secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731, including their leader, in exchange for providing America, but not the other wartime allies, with their research on biological warfare and data from human experimentation. , Shiro Ishii, as the chief of the unit, was granted war crime immunity from the US occupation authorities, because of his provision of human experimentation research materials to the US. Some have been arrested by Soviet forces and tried on the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials; others surrendered to the American Forces. He then received authorization to move to Pingfang, approximately 24 km (15 mi) south of Harbin, to set up a new, much larger facility.. 262 Views. Parts of organs, such as the brain, lungs, and liver, were removed from some prisoners.  Medical doctors and professors from Japan were attracted to join Unit 731 by the rare opportunity to conduct human experimentation and strong financial support from the Army. The Devil’s Gluttony – the Truth of Unit 731 Unveiled. The Ministry for Education attempted to remove this passage from his textbook before it was taught in public schools, on the basis that the testimony was insufficient. Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity", "Vivisectionist recalls his day of reckoning", "Weapons of Mass Destruction: Plague as Biological Weapons Agent", "Where To Find The World's Most 'Wicked Bugs': Fleas", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Biohazard: Unit 731 and the American Cover-Up (Page 5)", "The 1925 Geneva Protocol: China's CBW Charges Against Japan at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal", "Electrocuted, gassed, frozen, boiled alive", "Inside Japan's wartime factory of death", "Self Determination by Imperial Japanese Doctors", "[IAB8] Imperial Japanese Medical Atrocities", "Japanese Medical Atrocities in World War II", "Diary Whilst A P.O.W.  Once frozen, which testimony from a Japanese officer said "was determined after the 'frozen arms, when struck with a short stick, emitted a sound resembling that which a board gives when it is struck'", ice was chipped away and the area doused in water, limbs brought close to fire and other "methods" used to determine the effect it had on frostbite.  Researchers in Unit 731 also published some of their results in peer-reviewed journals, writing as though the research had been conducted on non-human primates called "Manchurian monkeys" or "long-tailed monkeys". The Japanese wanted to avoid prosecution under the Soviet legal system, so the next morning after he made his threat, Sanders received a manuscript describing Japan's involvement in biological warfare.  Author Seiichi Morimura estimates that almost 70% of the victims who died in the Pingfang camp were Chinese (including both military and civilian), while close to 30% of the victims were Russian. ; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity", "Japan guilty of germ warfare against thousands of Chinese", "CIA Special Collection ISHII, SHIRO_0005", The World: Revisiting World War II Atrocities; Comparing the Unspeakable to the Unthinkable, "Unit 731 and the Japanese Imperial Army's Biological Warfare Program – The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus", "Unmasking Horror -- A special report. , Due to pressure from numerous accounts of the bio-warfare attacks, Chiang Kai-shek sent a delegation of army and foreign medical personnel in November 1941 to document evidence and treat the afflicted. In 1936, Emperor Hirohito authorized by decree the expansion of this unit and its integration into the Kwantung Army as the Epidemic Prevention Department. After WWII, the Office of Special Investigations created a watchlist of suspected Axis collaborators and persecutors that are banned from entering the United States. Not many evidence about the truth regarding Unit 731 were left. In addition, poisoned food and candies were given to unsuspecting victims. Unit 731's sprawling headquarters were at Pingfan - completed with airport, railway stations and dungeons - on the outskirts of Harbin. Ishii told every member of Unit 731 to take their secrets to the grave and if captured to commit suicide before exposing their secret. Some of Unit 731's satellite facilities are in use by various Chinese in…  Saburō Ienaga's New History of Japan included a detailed description, based on officers' testimony. David C. Rapoport. Sanders' duty was to investigate Japanese biological warfare activity.  This was evidenced by the Soviet Union building a biological weapons facility in Sverdlovsk using documentation captured from Unit 731 in Manchuria.  Almost 70% of the victims who died within the Pingfang camp have been Chinese, together with each civilian and army. Unit 731 presents a special problem, since unlike Nazi human experimentation which the United States publicly condemned, the activities of Unit 731 are known to the general public only from the testimonies of willing former unit members, and testimony cannot be employed to determine indemnity in this way. This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill. His entry for January 30, 1943 notes: "Everyone received a 5 cc Typhoid-paratyphoid A inoculation." The Unit 731 complex covered six square kilometres (2.3 square miles) and consisted of more than 150 buildings. These books purported to reveal the "true" operations of Unit 731, but falsely attributed unrelated photos to the Unit, which raised questions about their accuracy. During his captivity, he kept a secret diary. A report on the Japanese use of plague-infested fleas on Changde was made widely available the following year, but was not addressed by the Allied Powers until Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a public warning in 1943 condemning the attacks. Xinhua via Getty Images Unit 731 personnel conduct a bacteriological trial upon a test subject in … , In other tests, subjects were deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death; placed into low-pressure chambers until their eyes popped from the sockets; experimented upon to determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and human survival; electrocuted; placed into centrifuges and spun until death; injected with animal blood; exposed to lethal doses of x-rays; subjected to various chemical weapons inside gas chambers; crushed with heavy objects; injected with sea water; and burned or buried alive. It has been 70 years since General Ishii Shiro, a surgeon from Kyoto University's medical school, secretly established Unit 731 in Harbin, northeast China, to develop weapons prohibited by international law. Some children grew up inside the walls of Unit 731, infected with syphilis. In James M. Ludes, Henry Sokolski (eds.). Sanders was a highly regarded microbiologist and a member of America's military center for biological weapons. The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22, 1945, but Japan surrendered five weeks earlier. The members of the unit, approximately 300 researchers, included doctors and bacteriologists. In 1932, Surgeon General Shirō Ishii (石井四郎, Ishii Shirō), chief medical officer of the Imperial Japanese Army and protégé of Army Minister Sadao Araki was placed in command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory (AEPRL). Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body. Unit 731 was disbanded during WWII with Russian invasion of Manchuko and Mengjiang. They routinely conducted tests on human beings (who were referred to internally as "logs").  In April 2018, the National Archives of Japan released the names of 3,607 members of Unit 731, in response to a request by Professor Katsuo Nishiyama of the Shiga University of Medical Science.. Since then many more in-depth testimonies have appeared in Japanese. Though "a large number of babies were born in captivity", there have been no accounts of any survivors of Unit 731, children included. In addition to the establishment of Unit 731, the decree also called for the establishment of an additional biological warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Military Horse Epidemic Prevention Workshop (later referred to as Manchuria Unit 100) and a chemical warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Technical Testing Department (later referred to as Manchuria Unit 516). "Terrorism and Weapons of the Apocalypse". 日本弁護士連合会『人権白書昭和43年版』日本弁護士連合会、1968年、pp. The Unit 731 complex covered six square kilometers and consisted of more than 150 buildings. Instead, he was offered immunity and taken to the US, where he masterminded biological warfare during the Korean War. Two prisons are hidden in the center of the main building. Approximately 30 kg of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced in several days. Japanese history textbooks usually contain references to Unit 731, but do not go into detail about allegations, in accordance with this principle.  Sheldon H. Harris documented that the victims were generally political dissidents, communist sympathizers, ordinary criminals, impoverished civilians, and the mentally handicapped. , At least 3,000 men, women, and children:117—from which at least 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai were subjected to experimentation conducted by Unit 731 at the camp based in Pingfang alone, which does not include victims from other medical experimentation sites, such as Unit 100. Unit 731 was divided into eight divisions: Unit 731 had other units underneath it in the chain of command; there were several other units under the auspice of Japan's biological weapons programs. It was chargeable for some of probably the most infamous conflict crimes carried out by Japanese personnel. , Some of the tests have been described as "psychopathically sadistic, with no conceivable military application".. The film examines the true story of Unit 731, a covert biological research unit, used by Imperial Japan during the Second World War. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_731. Koizumi had joined a secret poison gas research committee in 1915, during World War I, when he and other Imperial Japanese Army officers were impressed by the successful German use of chlorine gas at the Second Battle of Ypres, in which the Allies suffered 5,000 deaths and 15,000 wounded as a result of the chemical attack. Unit 731 (Japanese: 731部隊, Hepburn: Nana-san-ichi Butai), also known as Detachment 731, the 731 Regiment, Manshu Detachment 731, The Kamo Detachment,:198 Ishii Unit, Ishii Detachment or the Ishii Company, was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II. Female prisoners were forced to become pregnant for use in experiments.  This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread bubonic plague. The documentary, released on Aug. 13 by NHK, however, through testimonies of Unit 731 participants and authentic records of the Khabarovsk War Crimes Trials in 1949, presents vividly the cruel yet irrefutable historical truth to the unwitting public. The February 23, 1943 entry read: "Funeral service for 142 dead. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as "logs" (丸太, maruta), used in such contexts as "How many logs fell?". ; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity" The New York Times(1995). , In 1997, the international lawyer Kōnen Tsuchiya filed a class action suit against the Japanese government, demanding reparations for the actions of Unit 731, using evidence filed by Professor Makoto Ueda of Rikkyo University. Unit 731 (731部隊 Nana-san-ichi butai?, Chinese: 731部队) was a covert organic and chemical warfare analysis and improvement unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook deadly human experimentation through the Second … Part of IJN army, infamous for war crimes.  Until Sanders finally threatened the Japanese with bringing the Soviets into the picture, little information about biological warfare was being shared with the Americans. Ishii had proposed the creation of a Japanese biological and chemical research unit in 1930, after a two-year study trip abroad, on the grounds that Western powers were developing their own programs. I generally like to put a few photos with my blog posts, especially with long ones. Some were hung up and vivisected without anesthetic. Fetal survival and damage to mother's reproductive organs were objects of interest. Ishii ordered every member of the group to disappear and "take the secret to the grave". [Prisoner of War] At Mukden, Manchuria", "diary extract from Major R Peaty, 2 POWs [J A Scholl & A W Pooby] killed in air raids", "Audio recording of interview with Robert Peaty on five reels", "Japan publishes list of members of Unit 731 imperial army branch", "Unit 731: One of the Most Terrifying Secrets of the 20th Century", "Biohazard: Unit 731 and the American Cover-Up", Occupation censored Unit 731 ex-members' mail: secret paper, http://stars.library.ucf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3588&context=etd, Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World – Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it, "A Short History of Biological Warfare (Page 15)", "Japanese Textbook Controversies, Nationalism, and Historical Memory: Intra- and Inter-national Conflicts", "Examining the Japanese History Textbook Controversies", 衆議院議員川田悦子君提出七三一部隊等の旧帝国陸軍防疫給水部に関する質問に対する答弁書, "Names of 3,607 members of Imperial Japanese Army's notorious Unit 731 released by national archives", https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/3720697/DOJ-Copy-Cooper-1998-Correspondence.pdf, "Hit manga My Hero Academia removed in China over war crimes reference", "My Hero Academia Manga Updated With Villain's New Name", Alexander Street Press, Academic Video Store, Orrori e misteri dell'Unità 731: la 'fabbrica' dei batteri killer, The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG), History of Japan's biological weapons program, History of United States' biological weapons program, The Unknown Victims of Japanese Unit 731 in WWII (1932—1945) and Known Experiments, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, German pre–World War II industrial co-operation, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Japanese dissidence in 20th-century Imperial Japan, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Unit_731&oldid=996803555, Military history of Japan during World War II, Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Heilongjiang, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, chief of General Division, 1939–1941, head of Production Division, 1941–1945, lieutenant general of the Medical Service, lieutenant general of the Veterinary Service, lieutenant colonel of the Medical Service, Lieutenant Colonel Ryoichi Naito, founder of the pharmaceutical company, Kazuhisa Kanazawa, chief of the 1st Division of Branch 673 of Unit 731, Ryoichiro Hotta, member of the Hailar Branch of Unit 731, Major General Hitoshi Kikuchi, head of Research Division, 1942–1945, Lieutenant General [unknown first name] Yasazaka, doctor, Yoshio Furuichi, student at Sunyu Branch of Unit 731, Division 2: research for biological weapons used in the field, in particular the production of devices to spread germs and parasites, Division 3: production of shells containing biological agents; stationed in Harbin, Division 4: bacteria mass-production and storage, Divisions 6–8: equipment, medical and administrative units, "Unit 731" (2011), Power electronic band Brandkommando, "And You Will Beg for Our Secrets" (2016), from the, This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 18:11.  This military aerial spraying killed tens of thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics. Leśne morze) (1960), a novel by a Polish writer and educator Igor Newerly. One of Ishii's main supporters inside the army was Colonel Chikahiko Koizumi, who later became Japan's Health Minister from 1941 to 1945. Many of the scientists concerned in Unit 731 went on to outstanding careers in post-war politics, academia, enterprise, and drugs. Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi responded that the Japanese government did not then possess any records related to Unit 731, but the government recognized the gravity of the matter and would publicize any records that were located in the future. Approximately 30 kilograms (66 pounds) of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced in a few days. But Shiro Ishii, the head of the unit, never faced the tribunal. Plague-infected fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, including coastal Ningbo and Changde, Hunan Province, in 1940 and 1941. The term Unit 731 can refer to the Harbin complex itself, or it can refer to the organization and its branches, sub-Units and their branches. The leader of the unit was Ishii Shiro, who held the rank of lieutenant general at the end of World War II. To study the effects of untreated venereal diseases, male and female prisoners were deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhoea, then studied. The author Seiichi Morimura published The Devil's Gluttony (悪魔の飽食) in 1981, followed by The Devil's Gluttony: A Sequel in 1983. More truth on Japan's Unit 731 This was the only picture that was not NSFW about Unit 731. This building is currently open to visitors. The first book published outside Asia which refers to atrocities committed in the unit. Estimates of those killed by Unit 731 and its related programs range up to half a million people. Williams, Peter, and Wallace, David (1989). The United States refused to acknowledge the trials, branding them communist propaganda. , The test subjects were selected to give a wide cross-section of the population and included common criminals, captured bandits, anti-Japanese partisans, political prisoners, the homeless and mentally handicapped, and also people rounded up by the Kempeitai military police for alleged "suspicious activities". The Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into their biological warfare program, much as they had done with German researchers in Operation Paperclip. The trial of those captured Japanese perpetrators was held in Khabarovsk in December 1949. After the Japanese surrender, the United States became interested in the results of the "research" Unit 731 had done on the Chinese population, so in exchange for this the United States buried Unit 731 and gave Lieutenant General Ishii Shirō, commander of the unit, immunity from prosecution over the objections of the Soviet Union. Subsequently, the scandal around Unit 731 appeared to die down publicly, until it was revived approximately a decade later. The 2001 documentary Japanese Devils was composed largely of interviews with 14 members of Unit 731 who had been taken as prisoners by China and later released. :60, 84, 124, 310, A medical school and research facility belonging to Unit 731 operated in the Shinjuku District of Tokyo during World War II. ... probably never really know what went down in the making of Men Behind the Sun but we do know that the actual story of Unit 731 is horrifying. Included among those prosecuted for war crimes, including germ warfare, was General Otozō Yamada, the commander-in-chief of the million-man Kwantung Army occupying Manchuria.  The American historian Sheldon H. Harris states that over 200,000 died. Army Engineer Hisato Yoshimura conducted experiments by taking captives outside, dipping various appendages into water, and allowing the limb to freeze. The Devil's Gluttony The Truth of Unit 731 Unveiled - YouTube In 2014, Jilin Provincial Archives discovered a large volume of records about the Unit 731 from a newly uncovered collection of archives left behind by the Japanese army invading China. One was an article by Nicolas Kristof in the New York Times. , In August 2002, the Tokyo district court ruled for the first time that Japan had engaged in biological warfare. However, in an account by a man who worked as a junior uniformed civilian employee of the Imperial Japanese Army in Unit 731, the project was internally called "Holzklotz", which is a German word for log.  Some of these bombs were designed with porcelain shells, an idea proposed by Ishii in 1938. Unit 731 and the other units of the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department were biological weapon production, testing, deployment and storage facilities. From 1948 to 1958, less than 5% of the documents were transferred onto microfilm and stored in the National Archives of the United States, before being shipped back to Japan.. He infected prisoners with rickettsia and mental health patients with typhus. Some of Unit 731's satellite (branch) facilities are in still use by various Chinese industrial companies. The researchers involved in Unit 731 were secretly given immunity by the United States in exchange for the data they gathered through human experimentation. Skeleton crews of Ishii's Japanese troops blew up the compound in the final days of the war to destroy evidence of their activities, but many were sturdy enough to remain somewhat intact. The Unit 731 complex. There were also twelve members who were formally tried and sentenced in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. 126–134, Human Lab Rats: Japanese Atrocities, the Last Secret of World War II (Penthouse, May 2000).  Later in that decade, journalists suspected that the murders attributed by the government to Sadamichi Hirasawa were actually carried out by members of Unit 731.  Vivisections were performed on prisoners after infecting them with various diseases. So he and another unit member took the keys to the cells and opened one that housed a Chinese woman. Appendages into water, and plague were estimated to have killed at least Chinese... Was responsible for some of these Units comprised Ishii 's network, and at least 11 cities. 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